A Realistic, Anatomically Detailed Open-source Spinal Cord Stimulation Model for simulating conventional/High Frequency Spinal Cord Stimulation, Dorsal Root Ganglion (DRG) Stimulation and transpinal Direct Current Stimulation (tsDCS). The model captures complex and sub-millimeter dimensions at high resolution (0.1 mm). This is an open-source SCS model developed from computer aided design (CAD) software (SolidWorks). Depending upon the application, any leads or sponge pad can be positioned at/over the target and the .STL files can be generated. The .STL files is later imported into multi-physics software such as COMSOL, Mimics, Abaqus for computationally solving the FEM model and get desired field intensity, voltage, or current. This predicted voltages can later be applied into the axon model to estimate the fiber activation threshold.

This work has been conducted in collaboration with Scott Lempka’s group to provide the SCS, DRG, and tsDCS filed with a free state-of-the-art high resolution model for better current/voltage prediction at the targeted tissues.

For FEM modeling Pipeline refer to:

Seibt O, Truong D, Khadka N, Huang Y, Bikson M. Computational Finite Element Method (FEM) forward modeling workflow for transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) current flow on MRI-derived head: Simpleware and COMSOL Multiphysics tutorial. bioRxiv. July 2019:704940.

Prior Publications using earlier versions of this SCS model

  1. Khadka, N., Zannou, A., Truong, D., Zhang, T., Esteller, R., Hersey, B., Bikson, M., 2019. Generation 2 kilohertz spinal cord stimulation (kHz-SCS) bioheat multi-physics model. Brain Stimulation: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation 12, 566. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2018.12.876

  2. Zannou, A.L., Khadka, N., FallahRad, M., Truong, D.Q., Kopell, B.H., Bikson, M., 2019a. Tissue Temperature Increases by a 10 kHz Spinal Cord Stimulation System: Phantom and Bioheat Model. Neuromodulation. https://doi.org/10.1111/ner.12980

  3. Zannou, A.L.*, Khadka, N.*, Truong, D.Q., Zhang, T., Esteller, R., Hershey, B., Bikson, M., 2019b. Temperature increases by kilohertz frequency spinal cord stimulation. Brain Stimul 12, 62–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2018.10.007


RADO SCS model with details

Animation of the RADO SCS renderings


Getting started

Download SOLIDWORK Files for the CAD Models here >>

Download STL Files for the CAD Models here >>



Coming soon

Generation 4 SCS model with CT derived whole spines

Last update, Oct 07, 2019, Niranjan Khadka and Marom Bikson