Marom Bikson, PhD


Research Fellow, Neurophysiology Unit, University of Birmingham Medical School, U.K., 2003
Ph.D., Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, OH, 2000
B.S., Biomedical Engineering (EE Concentration), Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 1995

Research Areas and Expertise

Prof. Marom Bikson’s research group studies the effects of electricity on the human body and applies this knowledge toward the development of medical devices and electrical safety guidelines.

“Our goal is to improve human health by combining engineering innovation, with cutting-edge experimental techniques, and original bio-medical insight. This challenge requires creative problem-solving, precision, and imagination. We are tremendously fortunate to access the extensive resources of the City University of New York research centers and of the New York Center for Biomedical Engineering hospital network.”

Brain image website.PNG

Specific areas of research include:

  1. Medical devices including biosensors, drug delivery technology, and electrotherapy devices for neurological disorders.

  2. Medical device safety including electrical hazards, electroporation, heating damage, and safe stimulation protocols.

  3. Electrical safety, electric shock hazards, and accidental electrocution.

  4. Understanding the neuronal networks underlying normal brain function, including the role of endogenous electric fields.

  5. Developing new treatments for neurological diseases including epilepsy and depression, through translational research.


Prof. Bikson’s group uses a range of research and engineering design tools including cellular and animal studies, computer simulations, imaging, and clinical evaluation. Prof. Bikson’s research has received support from funding agencies including NIH (NINDS,NCI,NIGMS, NIMH), DoD (AFRL), The Andy Grove Foundation, The Wallace H. Coulter Foundation, The Epilepsy Foundation, and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Prof. Bikson is co-founder and CEO of Soterix Medical Inc.

Prof. Bikson is actively involved in biomedical education including outreach to underserved groups. Prof. Bikson is founding chairman of Neuromodec and its events including the NYCmeuromodulation conference and the Neuromodec tDCS Workshop.

Prof. Bikson has provided extensive technical support and consulting for biomedical companies (MedtronicBoston Scientific, NuSkin, Nevrocorp, Ion Channel Innovations, Wyle, Thync), utility companies (Con Edison, First Energy), government agencies (NIH, DoD, NASA, NY State Public Service Commission, Potomac Institute for Policy Studies), and litigation support.

View Prof. Bikson’s CV: PDF

Prof. Bikson is co-director of Neural Engineering at The City College of New York and the New York Center for Biomedical Engineering. More project information at CCNY Neural Engineering.

Selected Publications

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Khadka N, Borges H, Paneri B, Kaufman T, Nassis E, Zannou AL, Shin Y, Choi H, Kim S, Lee K, Bikson M. (2019). Adaptive current tDCS up to 4 mA. Brain Stimulation. PDF

Bikson M, Esmaeilpour Z, Adair D, Kronberg G, Tyler WJ, Antal A, Datta A, Sabel BA, Nitsche MA, Loo C, Edwards D, Ekhtiari H, Knotkova H, Woods AJ, Hampstead BM, Badran BW, Peterchev AV. (2019). Transcranial electrical stimulation nomenclature. Brain Stimulation. PDF

Seibt O, Truong D, Khadka N, Huang Y, Bikson M. Computational Finite Element Method (FEM) forward modeling workflow for transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) current flow on MRI-derived head: Simpleware and COMSOL Multiphysics tutorial. bioRxiv 704940. 2019 July 16; PDF

Valero-Cabré A, Sanches C, Godard J, Fracchia O, Dubois B, Levy R, Truong DQ, Bikson M, Teichmann M. (2019). Language boosting by transcranial stimulation in progressive supranuclear palsy. Neurology, PDF

Ekhtiari H, Tavakoli H, Addolorato G, Baeken C, Bonci A, Campanella S, Castelo-Branco L, Challet-Bouju G, Clark VP, Claus E, Dannon PN, Del Felice A, den Uyl T, Diana M, di Giannantonio M, Fedota JR, Fitzgerald P, Gallimberti L, Grall-Bronnec M, Herremans SC, Herrmann MJ, Jamil A, Khedr E, Kouimtsidis C, Kozak K, Krupitsky E, Lamm C, Lechner WV, Madeo G, Malmir N, Martinotti G, McDonald W, Montemitro C, Nakamura-Palacios EM, Nasehi M, Noël X, Nosratabadi M, Paulus M, Pettorruso M, Pradhan B, Praharaj SK, Rafferty H, Sahlem G, Salmeron BJ, Sauvaget A, Schluter RS, Sergiou C, Shahbabaie A, Sheffer C, Spagnolo PA, Steele VR, Yuan T-F, van Dongen J, Van Waes V, Venkatasubramanian G, VerdejoGarcía A, Verveer I, Welsh J, Wesley MJ, Witkiewitz K, Yavari F, Zarrindast M-R, Zawertailo L, Zhang X, Cha Y-H, George TP, Frohlich F, Goudriaan AE, Fecteau S, Daughters SB, Stein EA, Fregni F, Nitsche MA, Zangen A, Bikson M, Hanlon CA (2019). Transcranial Electrical and Magnetic Stimulation (tES and TMS) for Addiction Medicine: A consensus paper on the present state of the science and the road ahead. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. In Press.

Im JJ, Jeong H, Bikson M, Woods AJ, Unal G, Oh JK, Na S, Park, J-S, Knotkova H, Song I-K, Chung Y-A. Effects of 6-month at-home transcranial direct current stimulation on cognition and cerebral glucose metabolism in Alzheimer’s disease. Brain Stimulation. 2019. PDF

Meiron O, Gale R, Namestnic J, Bennet-Back O, Gebodh N, Esmaeilpour Z, Mandzhiyev V, Bikson M. Antiepileptic Effects of a Novel Non-invasive Neuromodulation Treatment in a Subject With Early-Onset Epileptic Encephalopathy: Case Report With 20 Sessions of HD-tDCS Intervention. Front. Neurosci. 13:547. 2019. https://doi:org/10.3389/fnins.2019.00547. PDF

Ambrose-Zaken GV, FallahRad M, Bernstein H, Wall Emerson R, Bikson M. Wearable Cane and App System for Improving Mobility in Toddlers/Pre-schoolers With Visual Impairment. Front. Educ. 4:44. 2019. PDF

M. Zannou AL, Khadka N, Truong D, FallahRad M, Kopell B, Bikson, M. Tissue Temperature Increases by a 10 kHz Spinal Cord Stimulation System: Phantom and Bioheat Model. PDF

Huang Y, Datta A, Bikson M, Parra LC. Realistic vOlumetric-Approach to Simulate Transcranial Electric Stimulation — ROAST — a fully automated open-source pipeline. Journal of Neural Engineering. 2019 In Press

FallahRad M, Zannou AL, Khadka N, Prescott SA, Ratte S, Zhang T, Esteller R, Hershey B, Bikson M. Topical Review: Electrophysiology equipment for reliable study of kHz electrical stimulation. The Journal of Physiology. 2019. PDF

Lattari E, Vieira LAF, Oliveira BRR, Unal G, Bikson M, de Mello Pedreiro RC, Marques Neto SR, Machado S, Maranhão-Neto GA. Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation With Caffeine Intake on Muscular Strength and Perceived Exertion. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2019. PDF

Hadar R, Winter R, Edemann-Callesen H, Wieske F, Habelt B, Khadka N, Felgel V, Barroeta Hlusicka E, Reis J, Alexandru Tatarau C, Funke K, Fritsch B, Bernhardt N, Bikson M, Nitsche MA, Winter C. Prevention of schizophrenia deficits via non-invasive adolescent frontal cortex stimulation in rats. Nature Molecular Psychiatry. 2019. PDF

Khadka N., Woods A.J., Bikson M. (2019) Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Electrodes. In: Knotkova H., Nitsche M., Bikson M., Woods A. (eds) Practical Guide to Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation. Springer, Cham. PDF

Fonteneau C, Mondino M, Arns M, Baeken C, Bikson M, Brunoni AR, Burke MJ, Neuvonen T, Padberg F, Pascual-Leone A, Poulet E, Ruffini G, Santarnecchi E, Sauvaget A, Schellhorn K, Suaud-Chagny M-F, Palm U, Brunelin J. Sham tDCS: a hidden source of variability? Reflections for further blinded, controlled trials. Brain Stimulation. 2019. PDF


Badran BW, Yu AB, Adair D, Mappin G, DeVries WH, Jenkins DD, George MS, Bikson M. Laboratory Administration of Transcutaneous Auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation (taVNS): Technique, Targeting, and Considerations. J. Vis. Exp. (), e58984, doi:10.3791/58984 (2018). PDF

da S Machado DG, Unal G, Andrade SM, Moreira A, Altimari LR, Brunoni AR, Perrey S, Mauger AR, Bikson M, Okano AH. (2018). Effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on exercise performance: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Brain Stimulation. 12(3), 593–605. PDF

Dobbs B., Pawlak N., Biagioni M., Agarwal S., Shaw M., Pilloni G., Bikson M., Datta A., Charvet L. (2018). Generalizing remotely supervised transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS): feasibility and benefit in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 15(1). PDF

Marron EM, Viejo-Sobera R, Cuatrecasas G, Redolar D, García-Lorda P, Datta A, Bikson M, Magerowski G, Alonso-Alonso M. Prefronto-cerebellar neuromodulation affects appetite in obesity. 2018; Int J Obesity. doi: 10.1038/s41366-018-0278-8. PDF

Lee SH, Im JJ, Oh JK, Choi EK, Yoon S, Bikson M, Song I-U, Jeong H, Chung Y-A (2018). Transcranial direct current stimulation for online gamers: A prospective single-arm feasibility study. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 1–5. Akademiai Kiado Zrt, doi: 10.1556/2006.7.2018.107. PDF

Gebodh N, Esmaeilpour Z, Adair D, Chelette K, Dmochowski J, Woods AJ, Kappenman ES, Parra LC, Bikson M. Inherent physiological artifacts in EEG during tDCS. NeuroImage. (185). pp. 408-424. 15 January 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.10.025. PDF

Badran BW, Yu AB, Adair DKP, Mappin G, DeVries WH, Jenkins DD, George MS, Bikson M. Methodological Description of the Laboratory Administration of Transcutaneous Auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation (taVNS) in Humans: Technique, Targeting and Considerations. J Vis Exp. 2018. In Press.

Silva-Filho E, Okano AH, Morya E, Albuquerque J, Cacho E, Unal G, Bikson M, Pegado R. Neuromodulation treats Chikungunya arthralgia: a randomized controlled trial. Sci. Rep. 8:16010. 2018 October 30, doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-34514-4. PDF

Santos TEG, Favoretto FB, Toostani IG, Nascimento DC, Rimoli BP, Bergonzoni E, Lemos TW, Truong DQ, Delbem ACB, Makkiabadi B, Moraes R, Louzada F, Bikson M, Leite JP, Edwards DJ. Manipulation of Human Verticality Using High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation. Front. Neurol. 2018 October 22, doi: 10.3389/fneur.2018.00825. PDF

Zannou AL*, Khadka N*, Truong DQ, Zhang T, Esteller R, Hershey B, Bikson M. Temperature Increases by kilohertz frequency Spinal Cord Stimulation. Brain Stim. 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2018.10.007. PDF

Truong DQ, Bikson M. Physics of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Devices and Their History. The Journal of ECT. 34(3), pp. 137–143. 2018 September 01, doi: 10.1097/yct.0000000000000531. PDF

Khadka N, Borges H, Zannou AL, Jang J, Kim B, Lee K, Bikson M. Dry tDCS: Tolerability of a novel multilayer hydrogel composite non-adhesive electrode for transcranial direct current stimulation. Brain Stim. 11(5), pp. 1044-1053. 2018 September-October, doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2018.07.049. PDF

Badran BW, Jenkins DD, Devries WH, Dancy M, Summers PM, Mappin GM, Bernstein H, Bikson M, Cocker-Bolt P, George MS. Transcutaneous Auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation (taVNS) for Improving Oromotor Function in Newborns. Brain Stim. 2018 June 30, doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2018.06.009. PDF

Cancel LM, Arias, K, Bikson M, Tarbell JM. Direct current stimulation of endothelial monolayers induces a transient and reversible increase in transport due to the electroosmotic effect. Sci Rep. 2018 June 18. 8:9265 doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-27524-9. PDF

Badran BW, Brown JC, Dowdle LT, Mithoefer OJ, LaBate NT, Coatsworth J, DeVreis WH, Austelle CW, McTeague LM, Yu A, Bikson M, Jenkins DD, George MS. Tragus or cymba conchae? Investigating the anatomical foundation of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS). Brain Stim. 2018 June 06, doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2018.06.003. PDF

Huh Y, Jung D, Seo T, Sun S, Kim SH, Rhim H, Chung S, Kim C, Kwon Y, Bikson M, Chung Y, Kim JJ, Cho J. Brain stimulation patterns emulating endogenous thalamocortical input to parvalbumin-expressing interneurons reduce nociception in mice. Brain Stim. 2018 May 09, doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2018.05.007. PDF

Reckow J, Rahman-Filipiak A, Garcia S, Schlaefflin S, Calhoun O, DaSilva AF, Bikson M, Hampstead BM. Tolerability and blinding of 4×1 High-Definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) at two and three milliamps. Brain Stim. 2018 May 04, doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2018.04.022. PDF

Knotkova H, Riggs A, Berisha D, Borges H, Bernstein H, Patel V, Truong DQ, Unal G, Arce D, Datta A, Bikson M. Automatic M1‐SO Montage Headgear for Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (TDCS) Suitable for Home and High‐Throughput In‐Clinic Applications. Neuromodulation. 2018 March 09, doi: 10.1111/ner.12786. PDF

Riggs A, Patel V, Paneri B, Portenoy RK, Bikson M, Knotkova H. At-Home Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) with Telehealth Support for Symptom Control in Chronically-Ill Patients with Multiple Symptoms. Front. Behav. Neurosci. 12:93. 2018 doi: 10.3389/fnbeh.2018.00093. PDF

Chhatbar PY, Kautz SA, Takacs I, Rowland NC, Revuelta GJ, George MS, Bikson M, Feng W. Evidence of transcranial direct current stimulation-generated electric fields at subthalamic level in human brain in vivo.Brain Stimul. 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2018.03.006. PDF

Bikson M, Ruiz-Nuño A, Miranda D, Kronberg G, Jiruska P, Fox JE, Jefferys JGR. Synaptic transmission modulates while non-synaptic processes govern the transition from pre-ictal to seizure activity in vitro. bioRxiv 280321. 2018 March 11 doi: 10.1101/280321. PDF

Hee Lee W, Kennedy NI, Bikson M, Frangou S. A computational assessment of target engagement in the treatment of auditory hallucinations with transcranial direct current stimulation. Front. Psychol. 9:48. 2018 Feb 22. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00048. PDF

Edemann-Callesen H, Habelt B, Wieske F, Jackson M, Khadka N, Mattei D, Bernhardt N, Heinz A, Liebetanz D, Bikson M, Padberg F, Hadar R, Nitsche MA, Winter C. Non-invasive modulation reduces repetitive behavior in a rat model through the sensorimotor cortico-striatal circuit. Trans Psy. 2018. doi: 10.1038/s41398-017-0059-5. PDF


Bikson M, Brunoni AR, Charvet LE, Clark VP, Cohen LG, Deng Z, Dmochowski J, Edwards DJ,  Frohlich F, Kappenman ES, Lim KO, Loo C, Mantovani A, McMullen DP, Parra LC, Pearson M, Richardson JD, Rumsey JM, Sehatpour P, Sommers D, Unal G, Wassermann EM, Woods AJ, Lisanby SH. Rigor and reproducibility in research with transcranial electrical stimulation: An NIMH-sponsored workshop. Brain Stimul. 2017 Dec 29. PDF 

Leite J, Goncalves ÓF, Pereira P, Khadka N, Bikson M, Fregni F, Carvalho S. The differential effects of unihemispheric and bihemispheric tDCS over the inferior frontal gyrus on proactive control. Neurosci Res. 2017. PDF

Zareen N, Shinozaki M, Ryan D, Alexander H, Amer A, Truong DQ, Khadka N, Sarkar A, Naeem S, Bikson M, Martin JH. Motor cortex and spinal cord neuromodulation promote corticospinal tract axonal outgrowth and motor recovery after cervical contusion spinal cord injury. Exp Neurol. 2017. PDF

Esmaeilpour Z, Marangolo P, Hampstead BM, Bestmann S, Galletta E, Knotkova H, Bikson M. Incomplete evidence that increasing current intensity of tDCS boosts outcomes. Brain Stimul. March-April 2017; 11(2): 310–321 doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2017.12.002. PDF

Meiron O, Gale R, Namestnic J, Bennet-Back O, Davia J, Gebodh N, Adair D, Esmaeilpour Z, Bikson M. High-Definition transcranial direct current stimulation in early onset epileptic encephalopathy: a case study. Brain Inj. 2017 Nov 20. doi: 10.1080/02699052.2017.1390254. PDF

Bikson M, Paneri B, Mourdoukoutas A, Esmaeilpour Z, Badran BW, Azzam R, Adair D, Datta A, Fang XH, Wingeiner B, Chao D, Alonso-Alonso M, Lee K, Knotkova H, Woods AJ, Hagedorn D, Jeffery D, Giordane J, Tyler WJ. Limited output transcranial electrical stimulation (LOTES-2017): Engineering principles, regulatory statutes and industry standards for wellness, over-the-counter, or prescription devices with low risk. Brain Stimul. 2017 October 15. 11:134-157 doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2017.10.012. PDF

dos Santos MD, Cavenaghi VB, Mac-Kay APMG, Serafim V, Venturi A, Truong DQ, Huang Y, Boggio PS, Fregni F, Simis M, Bikson M, Gagliardi RJ. Non-invasive brain stimulation and computational models in post-stroke aphasic patients: single session of transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. A randomized clinical trial. Sao Paulo Med J. 2017 Nov 6. doi: 10.1590/1516-3180.2016.0194060617. PDF

Rawji V, Ciocca M, Zacharia A, Soares D, Truong D, Bikson M, Rothwell J, Bestmann S. tDCS changes in motor excitability are specific to orientation of current flow. Brain Stimul 2017 Nov 2. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2017.11.001. PDF

Robinson C, Armenta M, Combs A, Lamphere M, Garza G, Neary J, Wolfe J, Molina E, Semey D, McKee C, Gallegos S, Jones A, Trumbo MC, Al-Azzawi H, Hunter M, lieberman G, Coffman BA, Aboseria M, Bikson M, Clark VP, Witkiewitz K. Modulating affective experience and emotional intelligence with loving kindness meditation and transcranial direct current stimulation: A pilot study. Soc Neurosci, 14:1. 2017. doi:10.1080/17470919.2017.1397054. PDF

Bikson M, Unal G, Brunoni A, Loo C. Special Reports: What psychiatrists need to know about Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation. Psychiatric Times. 2017 Oct 24. PDF

Mourdoukoutas AP, Truong DQ, Adair DK, Simon B, Bikson M. High-Resolution Multi-Scale Computational Model for Non-Invasive Cervical Vagus Nerve Stimulation. Neuromodulation 2017. doi:10.1111/ner/12706. PDF

Shaw MT, Kasschau M, Dobbs B, Pawlak N, Pau W, Sherman K, Bikson M, Datta A, Charvet LE. Remotely Supervised Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: An Update on Safety and Tolerability. J. Vis. Exp. 2017 Oct7. (128), e56211, doi:10.3791/56211. PDF 

Bikson M, Grossman P, Zannou AL, Kronberg G, Truong D, Boggio P, Brunoni AR, Charvet L, Fregni F, Fritsch B, Gillick B, Hamilton RH, Hampstead BM, Kirton A, Knotkova H, Liebetanz D, Liu A, Loo C, Nitsche MA, Reis J, Richardson JD, Rotenberg A, Turkeltaub PE, Woods AJ. Response to letter to the editor : Safety of transcranial direct current stimulation: Evidence based update 2016. Brain Stimul. 2017 Sep-Oct; 10(5): 986-987. doi: PDF

Charvet LE, Dobbs B, Shaw MT , Bikson M, Datta  A, Krupp LB. Remotely supervised transcranial direct current stimulation for the treatment of fatigue in multiple sclerosis: Results from a randomized, sham-controlled trial. Mult. Scler. J. 2017 Sep 22; 00(0): 1-10.  doi: PDF

Chrysikou EG, Berryhill ME, Bikson M, Coslett HB. Editorial: Revisiting the Effectiveness of Transcranial Direct Current Brain Stimulation for Cognition: Evidence, Challenges, and Open Questions. Front Hum Neurosci. 2017 Sep 8;11:448. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2017.00448. PDF

Jackson MP, Bikson M, Liebetanz D, Nitsche M. How to consider animal data in tDCS safety standards. Brain Stimul. 2017 Aug 18. pii: S1935-861X(17)30883-5. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2017.08.004. PDF

Dmochowski JP, Koessler L, Norcia AM, Bikson M, Parra LC. Optimal use of EEG recordings to target active brain areas with transcranial electrical stimulation. Neuroimage. 2017 Aug 15; 157:69-80. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2017.05.059. PDF

Chrysikou EG, Berryhill M, Bikson M, Coslett HB. Revisiting the Effectiveness of Transcranial Direct Current Brain Stimulation for Cognition: Evidence, Challenges, and Open Questions. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 2017 Aug. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2017.00448. PDF

Jackson MP, Truong D, Brownlow ML, Wagner JA, McKinley RA, Bikson M, Jankord R. Safety parameter considerations of anodal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in rats. Brain Behav Immun. 2017 Aug; 64:152-161. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2017.04.008. PDF

Boateng Jr. A, Paneri B, Dufau A, Borges H, Bikson M. Conference proceedings : The effect of cooling electrodes on tDCS tolerability. Brain Stimul.  2017 Jul–Aug ; 10(4): e82–e83. doi: PDF

Esmaeilpour Z, Milosevic M, Azevedo K,  Khadka N, Navarro J, Brunoni A,  Popovic MR, Bikson M, Fonoff  ET. Conference proceedings: Intracranial Voltage Recording During Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in Human Subjects With Validation of a Standard Model. Brain Stimul.  2017 Jul–Aug; 10(4): e72–e75. doi: PDF

Shaw M, Dobbs B, Pawlak N, Pau W, Sherman K, Bikson M, Datta A, Kasschau M, Frontario A, Charvet L. Conference proceedings: Updated Safety and Tolerability of Remotely-Supervised Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (RS-tDCS). Brain Stimul. 2017 Jul–Aug; 10(4): e60–e61. doi: PDF

Pawlak N, Agarwal S, Biagioni M, Bikson M, Datta A, Charvet LE. Conference proceedings: Remotely-supervised Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (RS-tDCS) for Parkinson’s Disease (PD) Clinical Trials: Guidelines and Feasibility. Brain Stimul. 2017  Jul–Aug; 10(4): e59–e60. doi: PDF

Pau W, Shaw M, Dobbs B, Kasschau M, Frontario A,  Bikson M, Datta A, Charvet L. Conference proceedings: Mood Improvement with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is Specific to Positive vs. Negative Affect in Multiple Sclerosis. Brain Stimul. 2017 July–August ; 10(4): e58–e59. doi: PDF

Dobbs B, Shaw M, Frontario A, Sherman K, Bikson M, Datta A, Kasschau M, Charvet L. Conference proceedings: Remotely-Supervised Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (RS-tDCS) Improves Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis. Brain Stimul. 2017  July–August ; 10(4): e57–e58. doi: PDF

Rabau S,  Shekhawat GS,  Aboseria M,  Griepp D,  Rompaey VV,  Bikson M,  de Heyning PV. Comparison of the long-term effect of positioning the cathode in tDCS in tinnitus patients. Front. Aging Neurosci. 2107 Jul 28; 9(217). doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2017.00217. PDF

Chakraborty D, Truong DQ, Bikson M, Kaphzan H. Neuromodulation of axon terminals. Cereb Cortex. 2017 Jun 24:1-9. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhx158. PDF

Antal A, Alekseichuk I, Bikson M, Brockmöller J, Brunoni AR, Chen R, Cohen LG, Dowthwaite G, Ellrich J, Flöel A, Fregni F, George MS, Hamilton R, Haueisen J, Herrmann CS, Hummel FC, Lefaucheur JP, Liebetanz D, Loo CK, McCaig CD, Miniussi C, Miranda PC, Moliadze V, Nitsche MA, Nowak R, Padberg F, Pascual-Leone A, Poppendieck W, Priori A, Rossi S, Rossini PM, Rothwell J, Rueger MA, Ruffini G, Schellhorn K, Siebner HR, Ugawa Y, Wexler A, Ziemann U, Hallett M, Paulus W. Low intensity transcranial electric stimulation: Safety, ethical, legal regulatory and application guidelines. Clin Neurophysiol. 2017 Jun 19. doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2017.06.001. PDF

Rahman A, Lafon B, Parra LC, Bikson M. Direct current stimulation boosts synaptic gain and cooperativity in vitro. J Physiol. 2017 Jun 1;595(11):3535-3547. doi: 10.1113/JP273005. PDF

Dmochowski JP, Bikson M. Noninvasive Neuromodulation Goes Deep. Cell 169, Jun 1, 2017, Elsevier Inc. PDF

De Paolis A, Bikson M, Nelson JT, de Ru JA, Packer M, Cardoso L. Analytical and numerical modeling of the hearing system: advances towards the assessment of hearing damage. Hear Res. 2017 Jun;349:111-128. doi: 10.1016/j.heares.2017.01.015. PDF

Nitsche M. Bikson M. Extending the parameter range for tDCS: Safety and tolerability of 4 mA stimulation. Brain Stimul. 2017  May-Jun; 10( 3): 541-542. doi: PDF

Hampstead BM, Sathian K, Bikson M, Stringer AY. Combined mnemonic strategy training and high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation for memory deficits in mild cognitive impairment. Alzheimers Dement (N Y). 2017 May 15; 3:459-470. doi: 10.1016/j.trci.2017.04.008. PDF

Edwards D, Cortes M, Wortman-Jutt S, Putrino D, Bikson M, Thickbroom G, Pascual-Leone A. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Sports Performance. Front Hum Neurosci. 2017 May 10;11:243. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2017.00243. PDF

Ezquerro F, Moffa AH, Bikson M, Khadka N, Aparicio LV, Sampaio-Junior B, Fregni F, Bensenor IM, Lotufo PA, Pereira AC, Brunoni AR. The Influence of Skin Redness on Blinding in Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Studies: A Crossover Trial. Neuromodulation. 2017 Apr;20(3):248-255. doi: 10.1111/ner.12527. PDF

Chen C, Bikson M, Chou L, Shan C, Khadka N, Chen W, Fregn F. Higher-order power harmonics of pulsed electrical stimulation modulates corticospinal contribution of peripheral nerve stimulation. Sci Rep. 2017 Mar 3;7:43619. doi: 10.1038/srep43619. PDF

A. Cancelli, C. Cottone, F. Tecchio, D. Truong, J. Dmochowski, D. Adair, M. Bikson. P094 Method for EEG guided transcranial Electrical Stimulation without models.Clinical Neurophysiology 2017 Mar; 128 (3):e54–e56. doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2016.10.219. PDF

Gebodh N, Adair D, Chelette K, Esmaeilpour Z, Bikson M, Dmochowski J, Parra LC,  Woods AJ, Kappenman E. Modulation of physiologic artifacts during concurrent tDCS and EEG. Brain Stimul. 2017 Mar 1;10(2):429-430. doi: PDF

Gebodh N, Adair D, Chelette K, Esmaeilpour Z, Bikson M, Dmochowski J. P128 Physiologic artifacts when combining EEG and tDCS. Clinical Neurophysiology 2017 Mar 1;128(3):e78-e78. doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2016.10.249. PDF

Bai S, Gálvez V, Dokos S, Martin D, Bikson M, Loo C. Computational models of Bitemporal, Bifrontal and Right Unilateral ECT predict differential stimulation of brain regions associated with efficacy and cognitive side effects. Eur Psychiatry. 2017 Mar;41:21-29. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2016.09.005. PDF

Esmaeilpour Z, Schestatsky P, Bikson M, Brunoni AR, Pellegrinelli A, Piovesan FX, Santos MM, Menezes RB, Fregni F. Notes on Human Trials of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation between 1960 and 1998. Front Hum Neurosci. 2017 Feb 23;11:71. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2017.00071. PDF

Charvet L, Shaw M, Dobbs B, Frontario A, Sherman K, Bikson M, Datta A, Krupp L, Zeinapour E, Kasschau M. Remotely-Supervised Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (RS-tDCS) Increases the Benefit of At-Home Cognitive Training in Multiple Sclerosis. Neuromodulation. 2017 Feb 22. doi: 10.1111/ner.12583. PDF

Giordano J, Bikson M, Kappenman ES, Clark VP, Coslett B, Hamblin MR, Hamilton R, Jankord R, Kozumbo WJ, McKinley A, Nitsche MA, Reilly JP, Richardson J, Wurzman R, Calabrese E. Mechanisms and Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation. Dose Response. 2017 Feb 9;15(1). doi: 10.1177/1559325816685467. PDF

Huang Y*, Liu AA*, Lafon B, Friedman D, Dayan M, Wang X, Bikson M, Doyle WK, Devinsky O, Parra LC, Measurements and models of electric fields in the in vivo human brain during transcranial electric stimulation. Elife. 2017 Feb 7;6. doi: 10.7554/eLife.18834. (*authors contributed equally). PDF  Summary video

Kronberg G, Bridi M, Abel T, Bikson M, Parra LC. Direct Current Stimulation Modulates LTP and LTD: Activity Dependence and Dendritic Effects. Brain Stimul. 2017 Jan – Feb;10(1):51-58. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2016.10.001. PDF

Lafon B, Rahman A, Bikson M, Parra LC. Direct Current Stimulation Alters Neuronal Input/Output Function. Brain Stimul. 2017 Jan – Feb;10(1):36-45. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2016.08.014. PDF

Khadka N, Zannou AL, Zunura F, Truong DQ, Dmochowski J, Bikson M. Minimal heating at the Skin surface during transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Neuromodulation. 2017 Jan 22. doi: 10.1111/ner.12554. PDF

Sebastian R, Saxena S, Tsapkini K, Faria AV, Long C, Wright A, Davis C, Tippett DC, Mourdoukoutas AP, Bikson M, Celnik P, Hillis A. Cerebellar tDCS: A novel approach to augment language treatment post stroke. Front Hum Neurosci. 2017 Jan 12;10:695. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2016.00695. PDF

De Paolis A, Watanabe H, Nelson JT, Bikson M, Packer M, Cardoso L. Human Cochlear Hydrodynamics: A High-Resolution μCT Images­Based Finite Element Study. J Biomech. 2017 Jan 4;50:209-216. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2016.11.020. PDF


Shin DW, Khadka N, Fan J, Bikson M, Fu BM. Transcranial direct current stimulation transiently increases the blood-brain barrier solute permeability in vivo. Proc. SPIE 9788, Medical Imaging 2016: Biomedical Applications in Molecular, Structural, and Functional Imaging. 2016 Mar 29; 97881X. doi: 10.1117/12.2218197. PDF

Kasschau M, Reisner J, Sherman K, Bikson M, Datta A, Charvet LE. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Is Feasible for Remotely Supervised Home Delivery in Multiple Sclerosis. Neuromodulation. 2016 Dec;19(8):824-831. doi: 10.1111/ner.12430. PDF

Jackson MP, Rahman A, Lafon B, Kronberg G, Doris Ling, Parra LC, Bikson M. Animal models of transcranial direct current stimulation: Methods and mechanisms. Clin Neurophysiol. 2016 Nov;127(11):3425-3454. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2016.08.016. PDF

Alonzo A, Aaronson S, Bikson M, Husain M, Lisanby S, Martin D, McClintock SM, McDonald WM, O’Reardon J, Esmailpoor Z, Loo C. Study design and methodology for a multicentre, randomised controlled trial of transcranial direct current stimulation as a treatment for unipolar and bipolar depression. Contemp Clin Trials. 2016 Nov;51:65-71. doi: 10.1016/j.cct.2016.10.002. PDF

Teichmann M, Lesoil C, Godard J, Vernet M, Bertrand A, Levy R, Dubois B, Lemoine L, Truong DQ, Bikson M, Kas A, Valero-Cabré A. Direct current stimulation over the anterior temporal areas boosts semantic processing in primary progressive aphasia. Ann Neurol. 2016 Nov;80(5):693-707. doi: 10.1002/ana.24766. PDF

Jog MV, Smith RX, Jann K, Dunn W, Lafon B, Truong D, Wu A, Parra LC, Bikson M, Wang DJ. In-vivo Imaging of Magnetic Fields Induced by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in Human Brain using MRI. Sci Rep. 2016 Oct 4;6:34385. doi: 10.1038/srep34385. PDF

Paneri B, Adair D, Thomas C, Khadka N, Patel V, Tyler WJ, Parra L, Bikson M. Tolerability of Repeated Application of Transcranial Electrical Stimulation with Limited Outputs to Healthy Subjects. Brain Stimul. 2016 Sep-Oct;9(5):740-54. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2016.05.008. PDF

Babyar S, Santos-Pontelli T, Will-Lemos T, Mazin S, Bikson M, Truong D, Edwards D, Reding M. Center of Pressure Speed Changes with tDCS versus GVS in Patients with Lateropulsion after Stroke. Brain Stimul. 2016 Sep-Oct;9(5):796-8. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2016.06.053. PDF

Bikson M, Grossman P, Thomas C, Zannou AL, Jiang J, Adnan T, Mourdoukoutas AP, Kronberg G, Truong D, Boggio P, Brunoni AR, Charvet L, Fregni F, Fritsch B , Gillick B, Hamilton RH, Hampstead BM, Jankord R, Kirton A, Knotkova H , Liebetanz D, Liu A , Loo C, Nitsche MA, Reis J , Richardson JD , Rotenberg A, Turkeltaub PE, Woods AJ. Safety of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Evidence Based Update 2016. Brain Stimul. 2016 Sep-Oct;9(5):641-61. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2016.06.004. PDF

Hogeveen J, Grafman J, Aboseria M, David A, Bikson M, Hauner KK. Effects of High-Definition and Conventional tDCS on Response inhibition. Brain Stimul. 2016 Sep-Oct;9(5):720-9. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2016.04.015. PDF

Dmochowski J, Koessler L, Parra LC, Bikson M,  Norcia AM. Targeted electrical stimulation of active brain sources using reciprocity. bioRxiv 2016 Sep 30. doi: PDF

Bikson M, Paneri B, Giordano J. The off-label use, utility and potential value of tDCS in the clinical care of particular neuropsychiatric conditions. J Law Biosci. 2016 Sep 10;3(3): 642-646. doi:10.1093/jlb/lsw044. PDF

Cappiello M, Xie W, David A, Bikson M. Zhang W. Transcranial direct current stimulation modulates pattern separation. Neuroreport. 2016 Aug 3;27(11):826-32. doi: 10.1097/WNR.0000000000000621. PDF

Alam M, Truong DQ, Khadka N, Bikson M. Spatial and polarity precision of concentric high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS). Phys Med Biol. 2016 Jun 21;61(12):4506-21. doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/61/12/4506. PDF

Cancelli A, Cottone C, Tecchio F, Truong D, Dmochowski J, Bikson M. A simple method for EEG guided transcranial electrical stimulation without models. J Neural Eng. 2016 Jun;13(3):036022. doi: 10.1088/1741-2560/13/3/036022. PDF

Hampstead BM, Briceño EM, Mascaro N, Mourdoukoutas A, Bikson M. Current Status of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Posttraumatic Stress and Other Anxiety Disorders. Curr Behav Neurosci Rep. 2016 Jun;3(2):95-101. doi:10.1007/s40473-016-0070-9. PDF

Dias DR, Trevizol AP, Miorin LA, Bikson M, Aboseria M, Shiozawa P, Cordeiro Q. Effect of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Protocol for Treating Depression Among Hemodialysis Patients: A Proof-of-Concept Trial. J ECT. 2016 Jun;32(2):e3-4. doi: 10.1097/YCT.0000000000000273. PDF

Hämmerer D, Bonaiuto J, Klein-Flügge M, Bikson M, Bestmann S. Selective alteration of human value decisions with medial frontal tDCS is predicted by changes in attractor dynamics. Sci Rep. 2016 May 5;6:25160. doi: 10.1038/srep25160. PDF

Santos-Pontelli TE, Rimoli BP, Favoretto DB, Mazin SC, Truong DQ, Leite JP, Pontes-Neto OM, Babyar SR, Reding M, Bikson M, Edwards DJ. Polarity-Dependent Misperception of Subjective Visual Vertical during and after Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). PLoS One. 2016 Mar 31;11(3):e0152331. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152331. PDF

Woods AJ, Antal A, Bikson M, Boggio PS, Brunoni AR, Celnik P, Cohen LG, Fregni F, Herrmann CS, Kappenman ES, Knotkova H, Liebetanz D, Miniussi C, Miranda PC, Paulus W, Priori A, Reato D, Stagg C, Wenderoth N, Nitsche MA. A technical guide to tDCS, and related non-invasive brain stimulation tools. Clin Neurophysiol. 2016 Feb;127(2):1031-48. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2015.11.012. PDF

Castillo-Saavedra L, Gebodh N, Bikson M, Diaz-Cruz C, Brandao R, Coutinho L, Truong D, Datta A, Shani-Hershkovich R, Weiss M, Laufer I, Reches A, Peremen Z, Geva A, Parra LC, Fregni F. Clinically Effective Treatment of Fibromyalgia Pain With High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Phase II Open-Label Dose Optimization. J Pain. 2016 Jan;17(1):14-26. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2015.09.009. PDF



Sarantos C, Bekritsky J, Khadka N, Bikson M, Adusumilli P. Design of Wireless Intra-operative pressure sensitive reticulated head (WIPOX2). J Medical Devices. 2015. doi:10.1115/1.4030600. PDF

Rahman A, Lafon B, Bikson M. Multilevel computational models for predicting the cellular effects of noninvasive brain stimulation. Prog Brain Res. 2015;222:25-40. doi: 10.1016/bs.pbr.2015.09.003. PDF

Bikson M, Truong DQ, Mourdoukoutas AP, Aboseria M, Khadka N, Adair D, Rahman A. Modeling sequence and quasi-uniform assumption in computational neurostimulation. Prog Brain Res. 2015;222:1-23. doi: 10.1016/bs.pbr.2015.08.005. PDF

Cancelli A, Cottone C, Parazzini M, Fiocchi S, Truong DQ, Bikson M, Tecchio D. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Personalizing the Neuromodulation. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2015;2015:234-7. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2015.7318343. PDF

Knotkova H, Woods AJ, Bikson M, Nitche MA. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS): What Pain Practitioners Need to Know.  Practical Pain Management. 2015; 15(3). link

Kasschau M, Sherman K, Haider L, Frontario A, Shaw M, Datta A, Bikson M, Charvet L. A Protocol for the Use of Remotely-Supervised Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in Multiple Sclerosis (MS).  J Vis Exp. 2015 Dec 26;(106):e53542. doi: 10.3791/53542. Video  PDF

Donnell A, D Nascimento T, Lawrence M, Gupta V, Zieba T, Truong DQ, Bikson M, Datta A, Bellile E, DaSilva AF. High-Definition and Non-Invasive Brain Modulation of Pain and Motor Dysfunction in Chronic TMD. Brain Stimul. 2015 Nov-Dec;8(6):1085-92. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2015.06.008. PDF

Galletta EE, Cancelli A, Cottone C, Simonelli I, Tecchio F, Bikson M, Marangolo P. Use of computational modeling to inform tDCS electrode montages for the promotion of language recovery in post-stroke aphasia. Brain Stimul. 2015 Nov-Dec;8(6):1108-15. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2015.06.018. PDF

Xu J, Healy SM, Truong DQ, Datta A, Bikson M, Potenza MN. A Feasibility Study of Bilateral Anodal Stimulation of the Prefrontal Cortex Using High-Definition Electrodes in Healthy Participants. Yale J Biol Med. 2015 Sep 3;88(3):219-25. PDF

Kurimori M, Shiozawa P, Bikson M, Aboseria M, Cordeiro Q. Targeting negative symptoms in schizophrenia: results from a proof-of-concept trial assessing  prefrontal anodic tDCS protocol. Schizophr Res. 2015 Aug;166(1-3):362-3. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2015.05.029. PDF

DaSilva AF, Truong DQ, DosSantos MF, Toback RL, Datta A, Bikson M. State-of-art neuroanatomical target analysis of high-definition and conventional tDCS montages used for migraine and pain control. Front Neuroanat. 2015 Jul 15;9:89. doi: 10.3389/fnana.2015.00089. PDF

Senco NM, Huang Y, D’Urso G, Parra LC, Bikson M, Mantovani A, Shavitt EG, Hoexter MQ, Miguel EC, Brunoni A. Transcranial direct current stimulation in obsessive–compulsive disorder: emerging clinical evidence and considerations for optimal montage of electrodes. Expert Rev Med Devices. 2015 Jul;12(4):381-91. doi: 10.1586/17434440.2015.1037832. PDF

Nitsche M, Bikson M, Bestmann S. On the Use of Meta-analysis in Neuromodulatory Non-invasive Brain Stimulation. Brain Stimul. 2015 May-Jun;8(3):666-7. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2015.03.008. PDF

Seibt O, Brunoni AR, Huang Y, Bikson M. The Pursuit of DLPFC: Non-neuronavigated Methods to Target the Left Dorsolateral Pre-frontal Cortex With Symmetric Bicephalic Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). Brain Stimul. 2015 May-Jun;8(3):590-602. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2015.01.401. PDF

Brunoni AR, Sampaio-Junior B, Moffa AH, Borrione L, Nogueira BS, Aparício LV, Veronezi B, Moreno M, Fernandes RA, Tavares D, Bueno PV, Seibt O, Bikson M, Fraguas R, Benseñor IM. The Escitalopram versus Electric Current Therapy to treat Depression Clinical Study (ELECT-TDCS): rationale and study design of a non-inferiority, triple-arm, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Sao Paulo Med J. 2015 May-Jun;133(3):252-63. doi: 10.1590/1516-3180.2014.00351712. PDF

Shekhawat GS, Sundram F, Bikson M, Truong D, Ridder DD, Kirk I, Stinear CM, Welch D, Searchfield GD. Intensity, Duration, and Location of High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for Tinnitus Relief. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2016 May;30(4):349-59. doi: 10.1177/1545968315595286. PDF

Khadka N, Truong DQ, Bikson M. Principles of Within Electrode Current Steering (WECS). J Med Device 2015 Apr 13-16;9 ,020947-1. doi:10.1115/1.4030126. PDF

Jones KT, Stephens JA, Alam M, Bikson M, Berryhill ME. Longitudinal neurostimulation in older adults improves working memory. PLoS One. 2015 Apr 7;10(4):e0121904. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121904. PDF

Song W, Truong D, Bikson M, Martin JH. Transspinal direct current stimulation immediately modifies motor cortex sensorimotor maps. J Neurophysiol. 2015 Apr 1;113(7):2801-11. doi: 10.1152/jn.00784.2014. PDF

Grecco LH, Li S, Michel S, Castillo-Saavedra L, Mourdoukoutas A, Bikson M, Fregni F. Transcutaneous Spinal Stimulation as a therapeutic strategy for spinal cord injury: State of the art. Journal of Neurorestoratology 2015 March 23;3:73—82. doi: PDF

Charvet L, Kasschau M, Datta A, Knotkova H, Stevens MC, Alonzo A, Loo C, Krull KR, Bikson M. Remotely-Supervised Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) for Clinical Trials: Guidelines for Technology and Protocols. Front Syst Neurosci. 2015 Mar 17;9:26. doi: 10.3389/fnsys.2015.00026. PDF

Fregni F, Nitsche MA, Loo CK, Brunoni AR, Marangolo P, Leite J, Carvalho S, Bolognini N, Caumo W, Paik NJ, Simis M, Ueda K, Ekhtiari H, Luu P, Tucker DM, Tyler WJ, Brunelin J, Datta A, Juan CH, Venkatasubramanian G, Boggio PM, Bikson M. Regulatory Considerations for the Clinical and Research Use of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS): review and recommendations from an expert panel. Clin Res Regul Aff. 2015 Mar 1;32(1):22-35. doi: 10.3109/10601333.2015.980944. PDF

Reato D, Bikson M. Parra L. Lasting modulation of in-vitro oscillatory activity with weak direct current stimulation. J Neurophysiol. 2015 Mar 1; 113(5):1334-41. doi: 10.1152/jn.00208.2014. PDF

Foerster BR, Nascimento TD, DeBoer M, Bender MA, Rice IC, Truong DQ,  Bikson M, Clauw DJ, Zubieta JK, Harris RE, DaSilva AF. Excitatory and inhibitory brain metabolites as targets of motor cortex transcranial direct current stimulation therapy and predictors of its efficacy in fibromyalgia. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015 Feb;67(2):576-81. doi: 10.1002/art.38945. PDF

Khadka N, Rahman A, Sarantos C, Truong D, Bikson M. Methods for Specific Electrode Resistance Measurement during Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation. Brain Stimul. 2015 Jan-Feb; 8(1):150-9. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2014.10.004. PDF

Saavedra , Gebodh N, Bikson M, Diaz C, Brandao R, Coutinho L, Shani-Hershkovich R, Weiss M, Laufer I, Reches A, Peremen A, Geva A, Parra LC, Truong D, Fregni F. Clinically Effective Treatment of Fibromyalgia Pain With High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Phase II Open-Label Dose-Optimization. J Pain. 2016 Jan;17(1):14-26. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2015.09.009. PDF



Toshev P, Guleyupoglu B, Bikson M. Informing dose design by modeling transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation. Clin Neurophysiol. 2014 Nov;125(11):2147-9. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2014.03.022. PDF

Gillick BT, Kirton A, Carmel J, Minhas P, Bikson M. Pediatric Stroke and transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Methods for Rational Individualized Dose Optimization. Front Hum Neurosci. 2014 Sep 19; 8:739. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00739. PDF

Scheldrup M, Greenwood PM, McKendrick R, Strohl J, Bikson M, Alam A, McKinley RA, Parasuraman R. Transcranial direct current stimulation facilitates cognitive multi-task performance differentially depending on anode location and subtask. Front Hum Neurosci. 2014 Sep 8; 8:665. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00665. PDF

DosSantos MF, Martikainen LK, Nascimento TD, Love TM, DeBoer MD, Schambra HM, Bikson M, Zubieta J, DaSilva AF. Building up Analgesia in Humans via the Endogenous μ-Opioid System by Combining Placebo and Active tDCS: A Preliminary Report. PLoS One. 2014 Jul 16; 9(7):e102350. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102350. PDF

Richardson JD, Fillmore P, Datta A, Truong D, Bikson M, Fridriksson J. Toward Development of Sham Protocols for High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS). NeuroRegulation 2014; 1(1) p. 62-72 doi:10.15540/nr.2014.1.1.62. PDF

Guleyupoglu B, Febles N, Minhas P, Hahn C, Bikson M. Reduced discomfort during High-Definition transcutaneous stimulation using 6% benzocaine. Front Neuroeng. 2014 Jul 11;7:28. doi: 10.3389/fneng.2014.00028. PDF

Guarienti F, Caumo W, Shiozawa P, Cordeiro Q, Boggio PS, Benseñor IM, Lotufo PA, Bikson M, Brunoni AR. Reducing transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)-induced erythema with skin pretreatment: considerations for sham-controlled tDCS clinical trials. Neuromodulation. 2015 Jun; 18(4):261-5. doi: 10.1111/ner.12230. PDF

Moreno-Duarte I, Gebodh N, Schestatsky P, Guleyupoglu B, Reato D, Bikson M, Fregni F. Transcranial Electrical Stimulation: transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS), transcranial Pulsed Current Stimulation (tPCS), and Transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS). The Stimulated Brain 2014; (ed. R Cohen Kadosh). Elsevier ISBN 9780124047044, Chapter 2, p.35-60.

Truong D, Minhas P, Nair A, Bikson M. Computational modeling assisted design of optimized and individualized transcranial Direct Current Stimulation protocols . The Stimulated Brain 2014; (ed. R Cohen Kadosh). Elsevier ISBN 9780124047044, Chapter 4, p.85-116.

Antal A, Bikson M, Datta A, Lafon B, Dechent P, Parra LC, Paulus W. Imaging artifacts induced by electrical stimulation during conventional fMRI of the brain. Neuroimage. 2014 Jan 15;85 Pt 3:1040-7. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.10.026. (Cover). PDF

Woods AJ, Hamilton RH, Kranjec A, Minhas P, Bikson M, Yu J, Chatterjee A. Space, Time, and Causality in the Human Brain. Neuroimage. 2014 May 15;92:285-97. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.02.015. PDF

Truong DQ, Huber M, Xie X, Datta A, Rahman A, Parra LC, Dmochowski J, Bikson M. Clinician accessible tools for GUI computational models of transcranial electrical stimulation: BONSAI and SPHERES. Brain Stimul. 2014; 7(4):521-4. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2014.03.009. PDF Use the free modeling tools here: BONSAI and SPHERES

Schambra HM, Bikson M, Wager TD, DosSantos MF, DaSilva AF. It’s all in your head: reinforcing the placebo response with tDCS. Brain Stimul. 2014 Jul-Aug; 7(4): 623–624. doi:  10.1016/j.brs.2014.04.002.  Letter-to-Editor. PDF

Brunoni AR, Shiozawa P, Truong D, Javitt DC, Elkis, H, Fregni F, Bikson M. Understanding tDCS effects in schizophrenia: a systematic review of clinical data and an integrated computation modeling analysis. Expert Rev Med Devices. 2014 Jul;11(4):383-94. doi: 10.1586/17434440.2014.911082. PDF

Shahid SS, Bikson M, Wen P, Ahfock T. The value and cost of complexity in predictive modelling: role of tissue anisotropic conductivity and fibre tracts in neuromodulation. J Neural Eng. 2014 Jun; 11(3):036002. doi: 10.1088/1741-2560/11/3/036002. PDF

Manuel AL, David AW, Bikson M, Schnider A. Frontal tDCS modulates orbitofrontal reality filtering. Neuroscience. 2014 Apr 18; 265:21-7. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2014.01.052. PDF 

Weiss SA, Bikson M. Open questions on the mechanisms of neuromodulation with applied and endogenous electric fields. Front Hum Neurosci. 2014 Apr 17;8:227. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00227. PDF  Opening editorial to special issue co-edited by M. Bikson and S.H Weiss

Rahman A, Toshev PL, Bikson M. Polarizing cerebellar neurons with transcranial Direct Current Stimulation. Clin Neurophysiol. 2014 Mar; 125(3):435-8. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2013.10.003. PDF

Woods AJ, Hamilton R, Kranjec A, Minhaus P, Bikson M, Yu J, Chatterjee A. Exploring structure-function relationships using parallel fMRI and tDCS. Brain Stimul. 2014 Mar- Apr;7(2):e9. doi: PDF



Kessler SK, Woods AJ, Minhas O, Rosen AR, Gorman C, Bikson M. Dosage considerations for transcranial direct current stimulation in children: a computational modeling study. PLOSE ONE In Press 2013, 8(9): e76112. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076112. PDF

Bikson M, Bestmann S, Edwards D. Transcranial Devices are not playthings. Nature 2013; correspondence 501:7466. PDF

Guleyupoglu B, Schestatsky P, Edwards D, Fregni F, Bikson M. Classification of methods in transcranial Electrical Stimulation (tES) and evolving strategy from historical approaches to contemporary innovations. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 2013; 219: 291-311. PDF Journal Link

Berker AO, Bikson M, Bestmann S. Predicting the behavioural impact of transcranial direct current stimulation: issues and limitations Frontiers of Human Neuroscience 2013; doi 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00613. PDF

Rahman A, Bikson M. Origins of specificity during tDCS: anatomical, activity-selective, and input-bias mechanisms Frontiers of Human Neuroscience 2013; doi 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00688. PDF

Reato D, Rahman A, Bikson M, Parra LC. Effects of weak transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation on brain activity – a review of known mechanisms from animal studies. Frontiers of Human Neuroscience 2013; doi 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00687. Journal Link PDF

Bikson M, Dmochowski J, Rahman A. The “Quasi-Uniform” Assumption in Animal and Computational Models of Non-Invasive Electrical Stimulation. Brain Stimulation Letter to the Editor 2013; 6:704-705. PDF

Datta A, Zhou X, Su Y, Parra LC, Bikson M. Validation of finite element model of transcranial electrical stimulation using scalp potentials: implications for clinical dose. J Neural Engineering2013;10(3):036018. doi: 10.1088/1741-2560/10/3/036018. PDF

Dmochowski J, Datta A, Huang Y, Richardson JC, Bikson M, Fridriksson J, Parra LC. Targeted Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for Rehabilitation after Stroke. J Neuroimage 2013; 75:12-19. PDF

Moreno-Duarte I, Morse L, Alam M, Bikson M, Zafonte R, Fregni F. Targeted therapies using electric and magnetic neural stimulation for the treatment of chronic pain in spinal cord injury. Neuroimage2013; 85(3) 1003-1013. PDF

Okano AH, Fontes EB, Montenegro RA, Farinatti PV, Cyrino ES, Min LL, Bikson M, Noakes TD. Brain stimulation modulates the autonomic nervous system, rating of perceived exertion and performance during maximal exercise. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2013. PDF

Cano T, Morales-Quezada JL, Bikson M, Fregni F. Methods to focalize noninvasive electrical brain stimulation: principles and future clinical development for the treatment of pain. Expert Reviews Neurotherapy 2013; 13(5):465-7. PDF

Rahman A, Reato D, Arlotti M, Gasca F, Datta A, Parra LC, Bikson M. Targeted Cellular Effects of Acute Direct Current Stimulation: Somatic and Synaptic Terminal Effects. Journal of Physiology2013; 591.10: 2563-2578. PDF

Truong DQ, Magerowski G, Blackburn GL, Bikson M, Alonso-Alonso M. Computational modeling of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in obesity: impact of head fat and dose guidelines.Neuroimage Clinical 2013; 2:759-766. PDF

Edwards D, Cortes M, Datta A, Minhas P, Wassermann EM, Bikson M. Physiological and modeling evidence for focal transcranial electrical brain stimulation in humans: a basis for high-definition tDCS NeuroImage 2013; 74: 266-275. PDF

Villamar MF, Volz MS, Datta A, Bikson N, DaSilva AF, Fregni F. Technique and Considerations in the Use of 4×1 Ring High-definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS). JOVE 2013; (77) doi: 10.3791/50309. WATCH

Chrysikou EG, Hamilton RH, Coslett HB, Datta A, Bikson N, Thompson-Schill SL. Non-invasive transcranial direct current stimulation over the left prefrontal cortex facilitates cognitive flexibility in tool use. Cognitive Neuroscience 2013; 4(2) 81-89. TEXT

Villamar MF, Wivatvongvana P, Patumanond J, Bikson M, Truong DQ, Datta A, Fregi F. Focal modulation of primary motor cortex in Fibromyalgia using 4×1-Ring High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS): Immediate and delayed analgesic effects of cathodal and anodal stimulation. J Pain 2013; 14(4): 371-83. PDF

Reato D, Gasca F, Datta, A, Bikson M, Marshall L, Parra LC. Transcranial electrical stimulation accelerates human sleep homeostasis. PLOS Computational Biology 2013; 9(2): e1002898. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002898. LINK

Hahn C, Rice J, Macuff S, Minhas P, Rahman A, Bikson M. Methods for extra-low voltage transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Current and time dependent impedance decreases. Clinical Neurophysiology 2013; 124(3) 551-556. PDF

Datta A, Dmochowski J, Guleyupoglu B, Bikson M, Fregni F. Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation and transcranial Pulsed Current Stimulation: A computer based high-resolution modeling studyNeuroimage 2013; 65:280-287. PDF

Kuo HI, Datta A, Bikson M, Minhas P. Paulus W, Kuo MF, Nitsche MA. Comparing cortical plasticity induced by conventional and high-definition 4×1 ring tDCS: a neurophysiological study Brain Stimulation 2013; 6(4):644-8. PDF Journal Link

Weiss SA, McKhann G, Goodman R, Emerson RG, Trevelyan A, Bikson M, Schevon CA. Field effects and ictal synchonization: insights from in homine observations Frontiers of Human Neuroscience2013; 7:828. PDF



Datta A, Troung D, Minhas P, Parra LC, Bikson M. Inter-individual variation during transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and normalization of dose using MRI-derived computational models.Frontiers in Neuropsychiatric Imaging and Stimulation. 2012; 3:91. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2012.00091. PDF

Bikson M, Rahman A, Datta A. Computational Models of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation.Clinical EEG and Neuroscience . 2012; 43(3) 176-183. PDF

Dasilva AF, Mendonca ME, Zaghi S, Lopes M, Dossantos MF, Spierings EL, Bajwa Z, Datta A, Bikson M, Fregni F. tDCS-Induced Analgesia and Electrical Fields in Pain-Related Neural Networks in Chronic Migraine. Headache. 2012; 52(8) 1283-95. PDF

Medina J, Beauvais J, Datta A, Bikson M, Coslett HB, Hamilton RH. Transcranial direct current stimulation accelerates allocentric target detection. Brain Stimulation. 2012; 6(3) 433-9. PDF Journal Link

Dmochowski JP, Bikson M, Parra LC. The point spread function of the human head and its implications for transcranial current stimulation. Phys Med Biol. 2012; 57(20) 6459-77. PDF

Kronberg G, Bikson M. Electrode assembly design for transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: A FEM modeling study. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012; 891-5. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2012.6346075. PDF

Truong DQ, Magerowski G, Pascual-Leone A, Alonso-Alonso M, Bikson M. Finite Element Study of Skin and Fat Delineation in an Obese Subject for Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012; 6587-90. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2012.6347504. PDF

Truong DQ, Datta A, Xu J, Fregni F, Bikson M. Optimization of Prefrontal Cortex transcranial Direct Current Stimulation via a Combined High Definition and Conventional Electrode Montage: A FEM modeling studying. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012; Slides: PDF

Minhas P, Bikson M, Woods A, Rosen A, Kessler S. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Pediatric Brain: A computational modeling study. 859-62. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2012.6346067. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012. PDF Free PMIC

Arlotti M, Rahman A, Minhas P, Bikson M. Axon terminal polarization induced by weak uniform DC electric fields: a modeling study. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012; 4575-8. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2012.6346985. PDF

Dmochowski J, Bikson M, Datta A, Richardson J, Fridriksson J, Parra L. On the Role of Electric Field Orientation in Optimal Design of Transcranial Electrical Stimulation Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012; 6426-9. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2012.6347465. PDF

Caparelli-Daquer E, Zimmermann TJ, Mooshagian E, Parra L, Rice J, Datta A, Bikson M, Wassermann EA. Pilot Study on Effects of 4×1 High-Definition tDCS on Motor Cortex Excitability.Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012; 735-8. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2012.6346036. PDF

Bikson M, Rahman A, Datta A, Fregni F, Merabet L. High-Resolution Modeling Assisted Design of Customized and Individualized Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Protocols. Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface. 2012; 15:306-315. PDF

Elwassif MM, Datta A, Rahman A, Bikson M. Temperature control at DBS electrodes using a heat sink: experimentally validated FEM model of DBS lead architecture. Journal of Neural Engineering . 2012; 8(4). PDF

Borckardt JJ, Bikson M, Frohman H, Reeves ST, Datta A, Bansal V, Madan A, Barth K, George MS. A Pilot Study of the Tolerability and Effects of High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS) on Pain Perception. Journal of Pain . 2012; 13(2): 112-120. PDF

Peterchev AV, Wagner TM, Miranda PC, Nitsche MA, Paulus W, Lisanby SG, Pascual-Leone A, Bikson M. Fundamentals of transcranial electric and magnetic stimulation dose: definition, selection, and reporting practices. Brain Stimulation 2012; 5:435-53. PDF

Bikson M, Reato D, Rahman A. Cellular effects of electric and magnetic fields: insights animal models and in slice. In Transcranial Brain Stimulation (Frontiers in Neuroscience) 2012 ed. Carolo Miniussi, Walter Paulus, Paolo M. Rossini. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1439875704 p55-92. PDF

Bikson M, Datta A. Guidlines for precise and accurate models of tDCS. Brain Stimulation 2012; 5:430-4. PDF

Brunoni AR, Nitsche MA, Bolognini N, Bikson M et al. Clinical research with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS): Challenges and Future Directions. Brain Stimulation 2012; 5(3): 175-95. PDF


Dasilva AF, Volz MS, Bikson M, Fregni F. Electrode positioning and montage in transcranial direct current stimulation. JOVE . 2011; (51). Video

Turkeltaub PE, Benson J, Hamilton RH, Datta A, Bikson M, Coslett HB. Left lateralizing transcranial direct current improves reading efficiency. Brain Stimulation 2011; 5:201-7. PDF

Dmochowski JP, Datta A, Bikson M, Su Y, Parra LC. Optimized multi-electrode stimulation increases focality and intensity at target. Journal of Neural Engineering . 2011; 8(4). PDF

Datta A, Baker J, Bikson M, Fridriksson F. Individualized model predicts brain current flow during transcranial direct-current stimulation treatment in responsive stroke patient. Brain Stimulation2011; 4: 169-74. PDF PubMed HTML

Halko M, Datta A, Plow E, Scaturro J, Bikson M, Merabet L. Neuroplastic changes following rehabilitative training correlate with regional electrical field induced with tDCS. NeuroImage . 2011; 57: 885-891. PDF

Mendonca ME, Santana MB, Baptista AF, Datta A, Bikson M, Fregni D, Araujo CP. Transcranial DC Stimulation in Fibromyalgia: Optimized cortical target supported by high-resolution computational models. Journal of Pain . 2011; 12(5):610-617. PDF 

Minhas P, Datta A, Bikson M. Cutaneous perception during tDCS: Role of electrode shape and sponge salinity. Clinical Neurophysiology. 2011; 122:637-638. PDF

Bikson M, Datta A, Elwassif M, Bansal V, Peterchev AV. Introduction to Electrotherapy Technology. in Brain Stimulation in the Treatment of Pain. ed. Helena Knotkova, Ricardo Crucianim, and Joav Merrick. Nova Science, New York 2011 ISBN 978-1-60876-690-1. PDF

J. P. Dmochowski, M. Bikson, A. Datta, Y. Su and L. C. Parra, “A multiple electrode scheme for optimal non-invasive electrical stimulation,” Neural Engineering (NER), 2011 5th International IEEE/EMBS Conference on, Cancun, 2011, pp. 29-35. doi: 10.1109/NER.2011.5910482. PDF



Reato D, Rahman A, Bikson M, Parra L. Low-intensity electrical stimulation affects network dynamics by modulating population rate and spike timing. Journal of Neuroscience. 2010; 30(45):15067-79. PDF

Servais EL, Rizk NP, McGwyver LO, Rusch VW, Bikson M, Adusumilli PS. Real-time intraoperative detection of tissue hypoxia in gastrointestinal surgery by Wireless Pulse Oximetry (WiPOX). Surgical Endoscopy. 2010; 25(5):1383-9. PDF

Datta A, Rahman A, Scaturro J, Bikson M. Electrode montages for tDCS and weak transcranial electrical stimulation Role of “return” electrode’s position and size. Clinical Neurophysiology. 2010; 121:1976-1978. PDF

Minhas P, Patel J, Bansal V, , Ho J, Datta A, Bikson M. Electrodes for high-definition transcutaneous DC stimulation for applications in drug-delivery and electrotherapy, including tDCS. Journal of Neuroscience Methods . 2010; 190(2):188-97. PDF

Datta A, Bikson M, Fregni F. Transcranial direct current stimulation in patients with skull defects and skull plates: High-resolution computational FEM study of factors altering cortical current flow.Neuroimage . 2010; 52(4):1268-78. PDF

Sunderam S, Gluckman B, Reato D, Bikson M. Toward rational design of electrical stimulation strategies for epilepsy control. Epilepsy & Behavior. 2010; 17:6-22. PDF

Lopez-Quitero SV, Datta A, Amaya R, Elwassif M, Bikson M, Tarbell JM. DBS-relevant electric fields increase hydraulic conductivity of in vitro endothelial monolayers. Journal of Neural Engineering . 2010; 7(1). PDF



Radman T, Ramos RL, Brumberg JC, Bikson M. Role of cortical cell type and morphology in sub- and suprathreshold uniform electric field stimulation. Brain Stimulation. 2009; 2(4):215-228. PDF

Datta A, Bansal V, Diaz J, Patel J, Reato D, Bikson M. Gyri –precise head model of transcranial DC stimulation: Improved spatial focality using a ring electrode versus conventional rectangular pad.Brain Stimulation. 2009; 2(4):201-207. PDF

Datta A, Elwassif M. Bikson M. Establishing safety limits for transcranial direct current stimulationClinical Neurophysiology . 2009; 120:1033-1034. PDF

Bikson M, Datta A, Elwassif M. Bio-heat transfer model of transcranial DC stimulation: Comparison of conventional pad versus ring electrode IEEE EMBS. 2009. PDF



Bikson M, Bulow P, Stiller JW, Datta A, Battaglia F, Karnup SV, Postolache TT. Transcranial direct current stimulation for major depression: a general system for quantifying transcranial electrotherapy dosage. Current Treatment Options in Neurology. 2008; 10:377-85. PDF

Datta A, Elwassif M, Battaglia F, Bikson M. Transcranial current stimulation focality using disc and ring electrode configurations: FEM analysis. Journal of Neural Engineering. 2008; 5:163-174. PDF

An JH, Radman T, Su Y, Bikson M. Effects of glucose and glutamine concentration in the formulation of the artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF). Brain Research. 2008; 1218:1586-93. PDF

Su Y, Radman T, Vaynshteyn J, Parra LC, Bikson M. Effects of high-frequency stimulation on epileptiform activity in vitro: ON/OFF control paradigm. Epilepsia. 2008; 49:1586-93. PDF



Radman T, Su Y, An JH, Parra L, Bikson M. Spike timing amplifies the effect of electric fields on neurons: Implications for endogenous field effects Journal of Neuroscience. 2007; 27:3030-3036. PDF

Fox JE, Bikson M, Jefferys JG. The effect of neuronal population size on the development of epileptiform discharges in the low calcium model of epilepsy. Neuroscience Letters. 2007; 411:158-61. PDF



Elwassif MM, Kong Q, Vazquez M, Bikson M. Bio-heat transfer model of deep brain stimulation-induced temperature changes. Journal of Neural Engineering. 2006; 3:306-15. PDF

Merrill D, Bikson M, Jefferys JGR. Electrical stimulation of excitable tissue: design of efficacious and safe protocols. Journal of Neuroscience Methods. 2005; 141: 171-198. PDF

Fox JE, Bikson M, Jefferys JGR. Tissue resistance changes and the profile of synchronized neuronal activity during ictal events in the low calcium model of epilepsy. Journal of Neurophysiology. 2004; 92: 181-188. PDF

Bikson M, Inoue M, Akiyama H, Deans JK, Fox JE, Miyakawa H, Jefferys JGR. Effects of uniform extracellular DC electric fields on excitability in rat hippocampal slices in vitro.  Journal of Physiology. 2004; 557: 175-190. PDF

Durand DM, Bikson M. Control of neuronal activity by electric fields: in-vitro models of epilepsy. In .Deep Brain Stimulation. 2003; Hans Luders ed. Martin Dunitz Ltd. ISBN 978-1841842592. PDF

Bikson M, Hahn PJ, Fox JE, Jefferys JGR.  Depolarization block of neurons during maintenance of electrographic seizures. Journal of Neurophysiology. 2003; 90: 2402-2408. PDF

Jefferys JGR, Deans J, Bikson M, Fox J. Effects of weak electric fields on the activity of neurons and neuronal network. Radiation Protection Dosimetry. 2003; 106:321-323. PDF

Shuai J, Bikson M, Lian J, Hahn PJ, Durand DM.  Ionic mechanisms underlying spontaneous CA1 neuronal firing in Ca2+-Free Solution. Biophysical Journal 2003; 84: 2099-111. PDF

Lian J, Bikson M, Sciortino C, Stacey WC, Durand DM.  Local suppression of epileptiform activity by AC Fields. Journal of Physiology. 2003; 547: 427-434. PDF

Bikson M, Fox JE, Jefferys JGR. Neuronal aggregate formation underlies spatio-temporal dynamics of non-synaptic seizure initiation. Journal of Neurophysiology. 2003; 89: 2330-2331. PDF

Bikson M, Id Bihi R, Vreugdenhil M, Kohling R, Fox JE, Jefferys JGR. Quinine suppresses extracellular potassium transients and ictal epileptiform activity without decreasing neuronal excitability in vitro. Neuroscience 2002; 115: 253-263. PDF

Lian J, Bikson M, Shuai J, Durand DM. Propagation of non-synaptic epileptiform activity across lesion in rat hippocampal slices.  Journal of Physiology 2001; 537; 191-199. PDF

Bikson M, Baraban SC, Durand DM. Conditions sufficient for non-synaptic epileptogenesis in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices. Journal of Neurophysiology 2001; 87:62-71. PDF

Bikson M, Lian J, Hahn PJ, Stacey WC, Sciortino C, Durand DM. Suppression of epileptiform activity by high frequency sinusoidal fields in rat hippocampal slices. Journal of Physiology 2001; 531:181-191. PDF

Durand DM, Bikson M. Suppression and control of epileptiform activity by electrical stimulation: a review. Proceedings of the IEEE 2001; 89:1065-1082. PDF

Ghai R, Bikson M, Durand DM. Effects of applied electric fields on low calcium epileptiform activity in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices.  Journal of Neurophysiology 2000; 84:274-280. PDF

Bikson M, Ghai R, Baraban SC, Durand DM. Modulation of burst frequency, duration, and amplitude in the zero-Ca+2 model of epileptiform activity. Journal of Neurophysiology 1999; 82:2262-70. PDF


Media / Selected Professional Activities

Also visit CCNY Neural Engineering Group NEWS

2019 NPR link

2019 The Economist and Slate link

2017 IBM thinkLeaders link

2017 HBO  – VICE news watch

2016 TEDx Bushwick watch

2016 Al Jazeera America watch

2016 SmartHealth Personal Feature link

2015 New Statesman link

2015 Motherboard link

2015 La Vangaurdia (pesonal feature on paper back page)  link

2015 PBS newhour watch

2015 Member Boston Scientific advisory board

2015 Chair, NYC Neuromodulation Jan 9, 2015 link

2014 MIT Tech Review Nov 10, 2014 link

2014 Scientific American Mind: Your Electric Pharmay Nov 2014 link

2014 NPR “Hacking The Brain With Electricity: Don’t Try This At Home” link May 19, 2014

2014 FrenchTV “Electrodes for a Better Brain” video in french May 20, 2014

2014 WIRED magazine “The Unfinished Science Behind the New Wave of Electrical Brain Stimulation” link May 5, 2014

2014 IEEE-Spectrum “The Latest DIY Craze: Brain Hacking” link

2014 KQED (NPR) “Is Brain Stimulation a Medicine of the Future” link

2013 Chair: NYCneuromodulation conference Program link

2013 DIYtDCS PodCast audio interview link

Runner’s World “Zap Your Brain to Run Faster” link Feb 27, 2013

2012 “Electrical brain stimulation gains ground” San Fransico Chronicle; Oct 30, 2012 link

2012 “tDCS Course” at Harvard Medical School Lecture on “tDCS Dose and Mechanism.” Watch the talk- Low Res Version Only or on YouTube