Niranjan Khadka


MPhil. Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York (2018)

B.E. Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York ( 2014)

A.E. Electrical Engineering, City University of New York (2010)


Khadka N, Truong D, Williams P, MArtin J, Bikson M. The Quasi-uniform assumption for Spinal Cord Stimulation translational research. J Neuro Methods. PDF

Khadka N, Borges H, Paneri B, Kaufman T, Nassis E, Zannou AL, Shin Y, Choi H, Kim S, Lee K, Bikson M. Adaptive current tDCS up to 4 mA. Brain Stimulation. PDF

Seibt O, Truong D, Khadka N, Huang Y, Bikson M. Computational Finite Element Method (FEM) forward modeling workflow for transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) current flow on MRI-derived head: Simpleware and COMSOL Multiphysics tutorial. bioRxiv 704940; doi: PDF

Zannou AL, Khadka N, Truong D, FallahRad M, Kopell B, Bikson, M. Tissue Temperature Increases by a 10 kHz Spinal Cord Stimulation System (NEVRO SENZA HF10): Phantom and bioheat Model. Neuromodulation. 2019. PDF

FallahRad M, Zannou AL, Khadka N, Prescott SA, Ratte S, Zhang T, Esteller R, Hershey B, Bikson M. Electrophysiology equipment for reliable study of kHz electrical stimulation. The Journal of Physiology. 2019. doi: PDF

Hadar R, Winter R, Edemann-Callesen H, Wieske F, Habelt B, Khadka N, Felgel V, Barroeta Hlusicka E, Reis J, Alexandru Tatarau C, Funke K, Fritsch B, Bernhardt N, Bikson M, Nitsche MA, Winter C. Prevention of schizophrenia deficits via non-invasive adolescent frontal cortex stimulation in rats . Nature Molecular Psychiatry . 2019. doi: PDF


Zannou AL*, Khadka N*, Truong DQ, Zhang T, Esteller R, Hershey B, Bikson M. Temperature Increases by kilohertz frequency Spinal Cord Stimulation. Brain Stimulation. 2018. doi: PDF

Khadka N, Borges H, Zannou AL, Jang J, Kin B, Lee K, Bikson M. Dry tDCS: Tolerability of a novel multilayer hydrogel composite non-adhesive electrode for transcranial direct current stimulation. Brain Stimulation 11 (5) .2018. doi: PDF

Edemann-Callesen H, Habelt B, Wieske F, Jackson M, Khadka N, Mattei D, Bernhardt N, Heinz A, Liebetanz D, Bikson M, Padberg F, Hadar R, Nitsche MA, Winter C. Non-invasive modulation reduces repetitive behavior in a rat model through the sensorimotor cortico-striatal circuit. Nature Translational Psychiatry 8 (1). 2018. doi: 10.1038/s41398-017-0059-5. PDF


Ezquerro F, Moffa AH, Bikson M, Khadka N, Aparicio LVM, Sampaio-Jr, B, Fregni F, Bensenor IM, Lotufo, PA, Pereira, AC, Brunoni AR. The influence of skin redness on blinding in transcranial direct current stimulation studies: a crossover trial. Neuromodulation 20 (3). 2017. doi: 10.1111/ner.12527. PDF

Khadka N, Zannou, AL, Zunara F, Truong DQ, Dmochowski J, Bikson M. Minimal Heating at the Skin Surface During Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation. Neuromodulation. 2017. doi: 10.1111/ner.1255. PDF

Chen CF, Bikson M, Chou LW, Shan C, Khadka N, Chen WS, Fregni F. Higher-order power harmonics of pulsed electrical stimulation modulates corticospinal contribution of peripheral nerve stimulation. Nature Scientific Reports7. 2017. doi: 10.1038/srep43619. PDF

Leite J, Goncalves OF, Pereira P, Khadka N, Bikson M, Fregni F, Carvalho S. The differential effects of unihemispheric and bihemispheric tDCS over the inferior frontal gyrus on proactive control. Neuroscience research.2017. doi: 10.1016/j.neures.2017.08.005. PDF

Zareen N, Shinozaki M, Ryan D, Alexander H, Amer A, Truong DQ, Khadka N, Sarkar A, Naeem S, Bikson M, Martin JH. Motor cortex and spinal cord neuromodulation promote corticospinal tract axonal outgrowth and motor recovery after cervical contusion spinal cord injury. Experimental neurology 297. 2017. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2017.08.004. PDF

Esmaeilpour Z, Milosevic M, Azevedo K, Khadka N, Navarro J, Brunoni A, Popovic MR, Bikson M, Fontoff ET.Intracranial voltage recording during transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in human subjects with validation of a standard model. Brain Stimulation 10(4). 2017. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2017.04.114. PDF


Shin DW, Khadka N, Fan J, Bikson M, Fu BM. Transcranial direct current stimulation transiently increases the blood-brain barrier solute permeability in vivo. SPIE Medical Imaging: Biomedical Applications in Molecular, Structural, and Functional Imaging. 2016 Mar 29; 97881X. doi: 10.1117/12.2218197. PDF

Paneri B, Adair D, Thomas C, Khadka N, Patel V, Tyler W, Parra L, Bikson M. Tolerability of repeated application of transcranial electrical stimulation with limited outputs to healthy subjects. Brain Stimulation 9 (5). 2016. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2016.05.008. PDF

Alam M, Truong DQ, Khadka N, Bikson M. Spatial and polarity precision of concentric high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS). Physics in Medicine & Biology 61 (12). 2016. doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/61/12/4506. PDF


Khadka N, Truong DQ, Bikson M. Principles of within electrode current steering. Journal of Medical Devices 9 (2). 2015. doi: 10.1115/1.4030126. PDF

Paneri B, Khadka N, Patel V, Thomas C, Tyler W, Parra L, Bikson M. The tolerability of transcranial electrical stimulation used across extended periods in a naturalistic context by healthy individuals. PeerJ (e13141). 2015. doi: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.1097v2. PDF

Sarantos C, Bekritsky J, Khadka N, Bikson M, Adusumilli P. Design of Wireless Intra-Operative Pulse Oximeter With Reticulated Pressure-Sensitive Head. Journal of Medical Devices 9 (3). 2015. doi: 10.1115/1.4030600. PDF

Bikson M, Truong DQ, Mourdoukoutas A, Aboseria M, Khadka N, Adair D, Rahman A. Modeling sequence and quasi-uniform assumption in computational neurostimulation. Progress in Brain research. 2015. doi: 10.1016/bs.pbr.2015.08.005. PDF


Khadka N, Rahman A, Sarantos C, Truong DQ, Bikson M. Methods for specific electrode resistance measurement during transcranial direct current stimulation. Brain Stimulation 8 (1). 2014. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2014.10.004. PDF

Book Chapters


Khadka N, Woods A.J, Bikson M. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Electrodes. In: Knotkova H., Nitsche M., Bikson M., Woods A. (eds) Practical Guide to Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation. Springer Nature. pp 263-291. 2019. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-95948-1_10. PDF


Bikson M, Parra LC, Datta A, Khadka N, Macuff SA. System and method for conducting multi-electrode electrical stimulation. USPTO. US 9,339,642 B1 (14/209,674). 2016.

Bikson M, Datta A, Khadka NElectrode Assemblies for Delivering Therapeutic Electrostimulation. USPTO. US 10143832. 2018.

Professional Activities and Accolades


Travel Award, North American Neuromodulation Society (NANS)

Wallace H. Coulter Foundation Award for Outstanding Graduate Researcher, 2016-2017

Travel Award for top 5 presenter, Minnesota Neuromodulation Symposium, 2015

David Eleanor Award for Exemplary Undergraduate Research, 2013-2015

New American Award for Best research, 2014

Hersh Scholar, 2013

Rising American Award for Outstanding Academics, 2013

Oral Presentation

Three-In-Five Competition, Top 10 medical devices with commercial potential– WIPOXDesign of Medical Device Conference, 2015  Link (Pg 6)

Poster Presentation

Bioheat model of kilohertz-frequency Deep Brain Stimulation increases brain tissue temperature. Neuromodulation the Science & NYC Neuromodulation 2019

Realistic Anatomically Detailed Open-source Spinal Cord Stimulation (RADO SCS) Model. Neuromodulation the Science & NYC Neuromodulation 2019

Generation 2 Bioheat Spinal cord Stimulation (SCS) model3rd International Brain Stimulation Conference, 2019

Temperature increases during conventional and high frequency spinal cord stimulation (SCS)NYC Neuromodulation Conference, 2017

Tolerability of up to 4 mA tDCS using Adaptive StimulationNYC Neuromodulation Conference, 2017

Dry electrode for transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)NYC Neuromodulation Conference, 2017

Understanding the skin response to transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)Sfn, 2016

Design of Wireless Intra-Operative Pulse Oximeter  With Reticulated Pressure-Sensitive Head. Military Health System Research Symposium, 2016

Factors influencing Current flow through Skin during transcranial electrical stimulationSfn, 2015 & NYC Neuromodulation, 2016

Design of Wireless Intra-Operative Pulse Oximeter  With Reticulated Pressure-Sensitive HeadDesign of Medical Device Conference, 2015

Principles of within electrode current steeringMinnesota Neuromodulation Symposium, 2015

Methods of Specific electrode resistance measurement during transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)Sfn, 2014

Professional Courses

Hands-On Cadaver Course for EngineersNorth American Neuromodulation Society (NANS), 2019

Hands-On NEURON Course. Yale University, 2019

Peer review

Journal of Medical Devices


Brain Stimulation

Journal of Neural Engineering


Physics in Medicine and Biology


Biomedical Physics & Express

Physics in Medicine and Biology




Find more about my research activities at my Google Scholar  and Researchgate web links.