New Paper: Physics of tDCS Devices and Their History
Truong DQ, Bikson M. Physics of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Devices and Their History. J ECT. 2018;34(3):137-143.
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) devices apply direct current through electrodes on the scalp with the intention to modulate brain function for experimental or clinical purposes. All tDCS devices include a current controlled stimulator, electrodes that include a disposable electrolyte, and headgear to position the electrodes on the scalp. Transcranial direct current stimulation dose can be defined by the size and position of electrodes and the duration and intensity of current applied across electrodes. Electrode design and preparation are important for reproducibility and tolerability. High-definition tDCS uses smaller electrodes that can be arranged in arrays to optimize brain current flow. When intended to be used at home, tDCS devices require specific device design considerations. Computational models of current flow have been validated and support optimization and hypothesis testing. Consensus on the safety and tolerability of tDCS is protocol specific, but medical-grade tDCS devices minimize risk.